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Using a crockpot or slow cooker is very easy; just add the food, cover, turn on low heat and cook all day. But there are always more things to learn, including how to convert recipes to make in your crockpot. The newest crockpots on the market come with divided liners, timers to adjust the cooking start time. The newer appliances seem to be hotter than models only a few years old, so it's best to learn how your particular crockpot cooks.

Do you know how to convert a regular recipe to crockpot cooking? How should ingredients be layered in the appliance? Can you cook rice or pasta in the crockpot? What about cakes or appetizer recipes? Let's answer these questions.

  • CONVERTING RECIPES

    Many recipes can be converted to cooking in the crockpot. Soups and stews, of course, are natural slowcooker favorites. Casseroles and most meats benefit from the low temperatures and even cooking heat. Reduce the amount of liquid a recipe calls for, since liquids do not evaporate during crockpot cooking. However, if you are cooking rice, beans, or pasta, don't reduce the liquid called for. You generally need twice as much liquid as product to cook these ingredients. Here's a chart converting oven and stovetop cooking times to crockpot cooking times.

    OVEN OR STOVETOP COOKING TIME LOW COOKING TIME HIGH COOKING TIME
    15 TO 30 MINUTES 4 TO 6 HOURS 1-1/2 TO 2-1/2 HOURS
    35 TO 45 MINUTES 6 TO 8 HOURS 3 TO 4 HOURS
    50 MINUTES TO 3 HOURS 8 TO 16 HOURS 4 TO 6 HOURS


    I generally prefer cooking most raw meat and vegetable combination at least 8 hours on LOW. This gives the vegetables time to soften, the meat time to tenderize and all the flavors to blend.

  • PREPARING INGREDIENTS

    Surprisingly, vegetables cook more slowly than meats in the moist heat of the slow cooker. So vegetables should be cut or chopped roughly the same size and placed in the bottom of the crockpot. Meat can be browned before being cooked, but that step isn't necessary. Browning helps reduce the fat content in large cuts of meat like roasts and also caramelizes the sugars in the meat, adding to appearance and flavor. Ground meats are usually browned before cooking in the crockpot, to reduce fat and keep the integrity of the product intact. You don't have to brown ground meats if they are very lean. The meat will then melt into the recipe. Trim off any visible fat from cuts of meat. Fat will make the dishes cook faster.

  • FOR YOUR HEALTH

    Studies have shown that the low, constant heat crockpots cook by may help prevent disease! Some compounds called "advanced glycation end products" are formed when sugars, fats, and proteins are heated at high temperatures, as when food is grilled, broiled, or microwaved. These AGE's irritate cells and may be a factor in the formation of heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. Since slow cookers only heat between 200 and 300 degrees, fewer of these compounds form in crockpot cooked meals.

  • MORE TIPS
    • Most crockpot recipes don't need to be stirred during cooking, especially if cooked on low heat. When you lift the lid, the crockpot loses so much heat that the cooking time should be increased by 20 minutes each time. Spin the lid instead, removing condensation, so you can see into the pot.
    • Use whole leaf herbs and spices instead of ground for better flavor. Some spices, especially pepper, can become bitter over a long cooking time. Add those in the last hour of cooking for best flavor.
    • Some of the newer crockpots seem to cook at a hotter temperature, probably because manufacturers are concerned about food safety. You can check the temperature of your crockpot this way:
      • Place 2 quarts of water in your crockpot
      • Cover and heat on low for 8 hours
      • Lift the lid and immediately check the water temperature with an accurate thermometer
      • The temperature of the water should be 185 degrees Fahrenheit. If the temperature is higher foods may overcook and you should reduce the overall cooking time. If the temperature is lower your foods will probably not reach a safe temperature quickly enough, and the crockpot should be discarded.
    • Pasta and rice can be cooked in the crockpot. Pasta needs lots of liquid to cook properly, and should be added during the last hour of cooking time, depending on the consistency of doneness you prefer. Converted rice can be cooked in the crockpot just like vegetables or meat. Make sure you have enough liquid in the recipe so the rice becomes tender.
    • You can make cakes and desserts in the crockpot! Use a small round rack or vegetable steamer to lift the cake pan off the bottom of the crockpot so heat circulates evenly around the pan. You do need a larger crockpot for 'baking' cakes and other desserts. A 5 quart slow cooker will hold an 8" or 9" cake pan or springform pan.
    • You may need to increase cooking times if you live at a high altitude, usually by 40-50%.
    • To clean the crockpot:
      • Fill the appliance with hot soapy water when the cooker has cooled. Let soak for 15-20 minutes, then scrub with a cloth, nylon net pad or a plastic sponge. Do not use a harsh abrasive cleaner, SOS pad or metal pad. Rinse well in hot water and dry.
      • To remove mineral stains, fill crockpot 3/4 full with hot water and 1 cup white vinegar. Cover and cook on high for 2 hours. Then let the crockpot cool and soak and clean as directed above.
      • To remove water marks from glazed crockery, rub the surface with vegetable oil and let stand for 2-3 hours. Then fill with hot soapy water, rub the surface, and scrub with a nylon net pad. Rinse and dry well.
    • Many people cook frozen foods in the crockpot. And others like to reheat foods in the crockpot. Most food experts do not recommend these practices, as foods need to reach a temperature of 140 degrees within 1-1/2 hours to prevent bacteria growth. Even if the foods do eventually reach a safe temperature and cook thoroughly, bacteria in the food can produce toxins that aren't destroyed by heat and that can make you sick. Many people have experienced food poisoning and don't even know it. They may have some digestive discomfort or feel ill for a day or two and then recover. Unfortunately, a person in a high risk group (elderly, persons with compromised immune systems, small children, and pregnant women) can suffer serious consequences from food poisoning. More than 5,000 people die each year in the U.S. as a result of food poisoning. If you decide to cook frozen foods or reheat foods in the crockpot, do so at your own risk. One thing you can do is to warm the liquid used in the recipe and add it along with the frozen foods, to help raise the temperature more quickly. Taking a calculated risk may be acceptable to you as long as you know the consequences AND as long as no member of your family is in a high risk group.


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